Volume 6, Issue 12 2300127
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Simultaneous detection and analysis of 11 nootropic compounds in 54 samples via liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

Nam Sook Kim

Nam Sook Kim

Center for Advanced Analysis, National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, Osong Health Technology Administration Complex, Cheongju-si, Republic of Korea

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Hwan Seong Choi

Hwan Seong Choi

Center for Advanced Analysis, National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, Osong Health Technology Administration Complex, Cheongju-si, Republic of Korea

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Hyunil Shin

Hyunil Shin

Center for Advanced Analysis, National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, Osong Health Technology Administration Complex, Cheongju-si, Republic of Korea

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Ji Hyun Lee

Ji Hyun Lee

Center for Advanced Analysis, National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, Osong Health Technology Administration Complex, Cheongju-si, Republic of Korea

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Hyungil Kim

Corresponding Author

Hyungil Kim

Center for Advanced Analysis, National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, Osong Health Technology Administration Complex, Cheongju-si, Republic of Korea

Correspondence

Hyungil Kim, Center for Advanced Analysis, National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, Osong Health Technology Administration Complex, 187 Osongsaengmyeong2-ro, Osongeup, Heungdeok-gu, Cheongju-si, Chungcheongbuk-do, 363–700, Republic of Korea.

Email: [email protected]

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Sooyeul Cho

Sooyeul Cho

Center for Advanced Analysis, National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, Osong Health Technology Administration Complex, Cheongju-si, Republic of Korea

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First published: 09 October 2023

Nam Sook Kim and Hwan Seong Choi contributed equally to this article.

Abstract

Dietary supplements used for improving brain function and strengthening attention are increasingly popular. However, illegal dietary supplements containing unapproved drugs continue to be seized. Therefore, it is necessary to rapidly screen and identify adulterated compounds in dietary supplements for public safety. To develop the simultaneous analytical method, we selected 11 nootropic compounds and optimized the simultaneous liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry and optimal conditions for liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry were proposed to determine the fragmentation patterns of each compound. The specificity, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, method detection limit, method quantitation limit, precision, accuracy, matrix effect, and stability of this method were evaluated according to international validation guidelines. The validated methods were applied to 54 samples containing dietary supplements and seized samples. On screening 11 nootropic compounds were detected in four solid samples (tablet and powder). By comparing the product ion ratios with the standards and quantification, vinpocetine (6.52–34.2 mg/g) was found in three samples, and omberacetam (995.6 mg/g) in one sample. To re-confirm the detected compounds, the fragmentation patterns were compared with those of the standards using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The developed simultaneous analysis method can help maintain public health and safety.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST STATEMENT

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

DATA AVAILABILITY STATEMENT

The data supporting the findings of this study are available in the Supporting Information of this article.