Volume 34, Issue 5 e4309
SPECIAL ISSUE REVIEW ARTICLE

Advanced magnetic resonance spectroscopic neuroimaging: Experts' consensus recommendations

Andrew A. Maudsley

Corresponding Author

Andrew A. Maudsley

Department of Radiology, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA

Correspondence

Andrew Maudsley, Department of Radiology, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, 1150 NW 14th Street, #713, Miami, FL33136, USA.

Email: [email protected]

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Ovidiu C. Andronesi

Ovidiu C. Andronesi

Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts

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Peter B. Barker

Peter B. Barker

The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, and the Kennedy Krieger Institute, F.M. Kirby Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Baltimore, Maryland

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Alberto Bizzi

Alberto Bizzi

Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milan, Italy

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Wolfgang Bogner

Wolfgang Bogner

High Field MR Center, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Medical University Vienna, Vienna, Austria

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Anke Henning

Anke Henning

Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tübingen, Germany

Advanced Imaging Research Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas

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Sarah J. Nelson

Sarah J. Nelson

Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California

Died April 3, 2019

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Stefan Posse

Stefan Posse

Department of Neurology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico

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Dikoma C. Shungu

Dikoma C. Shungu

Department of Neuroradiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York

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Brian J. Soher

Brian J. Soher

Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina

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First published: 29 April 2020
Citations: 35

Abstract

Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) offers considerable promise for monitoring metabolic alterations associated with disease or injury; however, to date, these methods have not had a significant impact on clinical care, and their use remains largely confined to the research community and a limited number of clinical sites. The MRSI methods currently implemented on clinical MRI instruments have remained essentially unchanged for two decades, with only incremental improvements in sequence implementation. During this time, a number of technological developments have taken place that have already greatly benefited the quality of MRSI measurements within the research community and which promise to bring advanced MRSI studies to the point where the technique becomes a true imaging modality, while making the traditional review of individual spectra a secondary requirement. Furthermore, the increasing use of biomedical MR spectroscopy studies has indicated clinical areas where advanced MRSI methods can provide valuable information for clinical care. In light of this rapidly changing technological environment and growing understanding of the value of MRSI studies for biomedical studies, this article presents a consensus from a group of experts in the field that reviews the state-of-the-art for clinical proton MRSI studies of the human brain, recommends minimal standards for further development of vendor-provided MRSI implementations, and identifies areas which need further technical development.